Relations between Germany and Monaco have traditionally been friendly, as attested by the fact that one of the country’s 15 embassies can be found in Berlin.
Prince Albert II has been Head of State since May 2005. He is advised on important matters by the Crown Council, which is comprised of seven members. The government is led by a Minister of State, who reports to the Prince. Pierre Dartout, who was previously Prefect of the French region Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, has been Minister of State since 1 September 2020. Parliament, which is elected for a five-year term in direct, general and free elections, only has limited parliamentary powers.
Monaco’s foreign policy scope expanded with the entry into force of the Friendship and Cooperation Treaty between Monaco and France on 15 February 2006. Under this Treaty, Monaco must only “coordinate adequately and regularly” with France on the basic tenets of its international relations. Since then, Monaco has been expanding its diplomatic relations with other countries.
Monaco maintains close relations with the EU. Since 2015, the EU has been negotiating with Monaco, San Marino and Andorra on an association agreement. An agreement between the EU and Monaco entered into force on 1 January 2017, with the aim of establishing an automatic exchange of information in order to improve adherence to tax regulations. The euro is the currency used in Monaco.
In 2020, Germany was Monaco’s second-largest export destination with a volume of 132.4 million euro, ahead of Switzerland and behind Italy. Monaco’s imports from Germany were worth 150.1 million euro in 2020; putting Germany in second place behind Italy and ahead of China. Monaco’s trade with France does not appear in its foreign trade statistics.
Sustainable development and environmental protection, in particular marine conservation, are priority issues for Monaco’s Head of State and Government. The German branch of the environmental foundation established by Prince Albert II (Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco) opened in Düsseldorf in 2009. The foundation supports projects aimed at protecting the environment, climate, biodiversity and water. Many of the Prince’s numerous bilateral meetings and visits serve to highlight Monaco’s environmental policy profile.
According to the most recent estimate (December 2020), Monaco’s population totals 38,350 (as of 31.12.2019, up 0.5% on the previous year). Almost a quarter of the population holds Monegasque citizenship, while around three-quarters of its inhabitants come from over 130 different countries, primarily France and Italy. Some 2% of the inhabitants are German.