Last updated March 2018
Brazil is the only Latin American country with which Germany has enjoyed a “strategic partnership” since 2008. This strategic partnership is principally concerned with further expanding cooperation on bilateral and multilateral issues. The first intergovernmental consultations in August 2015, for which Federal Chancellor Merkel and 12 Cabinet members (or their deputies) travelled to Brasília, were a landmark event in efforts to strengthen relations.
Cooperation between the two countries is wide-ranging, covering areas such as energy, environment, climate, science and research, business and trade, defence, labour and social affairs as well as cooperation within the United Nations and on human rights. With funding from the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Environment Ministry and the International Climate Initiative, Germany is working together with Brazil to protect the country’s tropical forest and promote renewable energies and energy efficiency. Both Germany and Brazil attach particular importance to scientific, technological and cultural exchange. The large number of Germans who emigrated to Brazil throughout history have had a positive impact on cooperation.
Brazil and Germany work together on numerous issues on the international agenda, in particular the reform of the United Nations, including the enlargement of the Security Council to include new permanent and non-permanent members, and the reform of the global financial system. Cooperation also encompasses international climate protection and environmental policy, the G20 and the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva. This has been complemented by close bilateral cooperation on urbanisation and cyber policy.
Brazil is Germany’s largest Latin American trading partner. Bilateral trade in both directions has gained impetus in the past two decades, with a temporary decline due to the economic and monetary crisis. This growth has recently lost momentum again. In 2016, German exports to Brazil were worth approximately 8.5 billion euros, a decline of 13.2 percent compared with 2015. German imports from Brazil fell by 8.2 percent in 2016 compared with the previous year, to 7.8 billion euros, putting Brazil in 30th place among countries importing goods from Germany and in 26th place among exporters to Germany. According to Federal Statistical Office figures, Germany had a trade surplus with Brazil of approximately 744 million euros in 2016.
Brazil’s main exports to Germany are iron ore, soya and soya products, coffee and coffee products, car parts, civil aircraft, machinery, meat, copper and crude oil. Brazil’s main imports from Germany are machinery, cars and car parts, chemical precursors, pharmaceutical products, electrical and metal goods.
German direct investment in Brazil – including reinvestment – amounts to more than 20 billion euros. There are more than 1300 German-Brazilian companies employing a total workforce of approximately 250,000 people. With some 900 German-Brazilian companies, São Paulo has one of the largest concentrations of German business worldwide. Brazilian direct investment in Germany has so far been fairly limited.
In Brazil, the German business community can avail itself of the services of the German-Brazilian Chambers of Commerce and Industry based in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, as well as a Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) correspondent in São Paulo. The chambers provide extensive information material and advice for German exporters and investors. To strengthen bilateral economic relations, the German-Brazilian Economic Meeting is held once a year with meetings for entrepreneurs. It is organised by the Federation of German Industries (BDI) and its Brazilian counterpart, the Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI). The meeting of the Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation is scheduled to coincide with the Economic Meeting. The 34th German-Brazilian Economic Meeting was held on 16 October 2016 in the city of Weimar, and the next meeting will take place in Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, from 12 to 14 November 2017. Both at these meetings and at various foreign trade fairs, Brazil has shown a keen interest in German future-oriented technologies in sectors such as transport, infrastructure, urban development, health, renewable energies, energy efficiency and climate protection.
Culture and education
Cooperation focuses on promoting German as a foreign language, special consideration being given to the German schools, cultural programme work and scientific and academic exchange.
The network of the Goethe-Institute in Brazil encompasses five institutes: in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Porto Alegre and Curitiba as well as the Goethe-Zentrum in Brasília. The focus is on language work as well as extensive programme work. German-Brazilian cultural societies make a valuable contribution to Germany’s cultural presence in Brazil, especially in the areas settled by German immigrants in the south of the country (Blumenau, Joinville and São Bento do Sul), but also in the north-east (Recife, Fortaleza and Belém).
There are four German schools in Brazil which enable students to gain the German higher education entrance qualification (Abitur), three in São Paulo and one in Rio de Janeiro. There are around 50 public and private schools in Brazil belonging to the Schools: Partners for the Future initiative (PASCH) that offer German as a foreign language. German is increasingly seen in Brazil as a key to professional and academic success. At the 2015 German-Brazilian intergovernmental consultations, Germany’s then Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier and Brazil’s Education Minister signed a joint declaration of intent on promoting the teaching of German as a foreign language at Brazilian schools. An annual German Language Week has been held throughout Brazil since 2016.
Many German universities have their own cooperation agreements with Brazilian universities. The approximately 580 formalised higher education partnerships also constitute an important institutional basis for student exchange. In the 2015/16 winter semester, there were a total of 4811 Brazilians studying at German higher education institutions.
Brazil is a partner country of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and has for decades been one of Germany’s principal cooperation partners in the area of higher education. In Brazil, the DAAD has a branch office in Rio de Janeiro, an Information Centre in São Paulo, the Martius Chair of European and German Studies at the University of São Paulo, a network of 16 language and teaching assistants as well as seven lectorships – in Belém, Belo Horizonte (filled since August), Campinas, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro. In addition to teaching, the lectors also provide student advice services and promote Germany as a study and research destination.
The DAAD currently coordinates approximately 25 scholarship programmes in Brazil for students and academics. To provide preparatory language instruction for study in Germany and to give new impetus to the basic and further training of German teachers in Brazil, the DAAD and Brazil’s Ministry of Education jointly launched the programme Languages Without Borders – German in 2016. The main aims of the programme are to create distance learning opportunities (including online courses as well as blended learning courses supported by the German teaching assistants), develop a nationwide system for online testing that allows Brazilian students to take accredited German examinations and expedite the establishment of German language centres at Brazilian universities. The programme is being offered at 14 Brazilian universities.
In addition, the DAAD played a major role in implementing the Science Without Borders mobility programme. From 2011 to 2016, Brazil provided around 90,000 scholarships for study and research abroad through this programme, while Germany has received some 6500 Brazilian undergraduates, PhD students and young researchers. The scholarship programme was discontinued at the end of June 2016 because of spending cuts by the Brazilian Government. The new PRINT programme, run by the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education (CAPES), is focused on promoting the internationalisation of 40 Brazilian universities, with emphasis on postgraduate programmes.
With political initiatives like the German-Brazilian Year of Science, Technology and Innovation 2010/11, the Year of Germany in Brazil 2013/14 and the establishment of the German House of Science and Innovation in São Paulo, Germany has succeeded in further enhancing its presence in Brazil and giving fresh impetus to cooperation.
The German House of Science and Innovation (DWIH) in São Paulo, which brings German funding organisations, research institutions and universities (www.dwih.com.br) together under one roof, has received funding from the Federal Foreign Office since 2009. The DWIH São Paulo, which is managed by DAAD, provides information on German science and research and promotes cooperation with innovative German organisations and companies. It organises a conference each year on scientifically relevant issues. Last year the conference focused on the issue of bioeconomy, and this year German and Brazilian scientists will discuss and exchange views on new forms of work in a digital world.
Brazil has become a highly regarded partner of Germany in project-related cooperation. In addition to bilateral cooperation between research institutions and universities, organisations that are particularly engaged in Brazil include the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Max Planck Society, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Examples of outstanding bilateral research projects include the 320 metre high Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory, which was set up by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, with co-funding from Brazil, to collect data for analysing the climatic function of the rain forest, and the BRAGECRIM research network, in which, since 2009, more than 300 researchers from over 30 German and Brazilian universities, research institutions and industry partners have been pursuing the development of sustainable and innovative production technologies. BRAGECRIM is funded on the German side by the DFG.
Since April 2017, bilateral academic education and research in the social sciences and humanities has been durably strengthened by the opening of the Centre for German and European Studies (CGES) at two prestigious universities in Porto Alegre – the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – as well as by the establishment of the Maria Sibylla Merian Centre Latin America in São Paulo. The former is funded by the Federal Foreign Office, and the latter by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The Maria Sibylla Merian Centre Latin America, which is led by an international consortium comprised of three German partners (Freie Universität Berlin, the University of Cologne, the Ibero-American Institute) and four Latin American partners (the University of São Paulo, the Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and El Colegio de México), aims to investigate the various forms of social, political, religious and cultural coexistence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Brazil is the world’s most biodiverse country and the Amazon rainforest is the biggest carbon sink worldwide. Although a large portion of Brazil’s energy already comes from climate-friendly, renewable energy sources, Brazil’s wealth of resources such as water, wind, sun and biomass offers huge further potential for environmentally friendly energy generation. In short, Brazil is a country of outstanding importance for protecting biodiversity and stabilising the climate. Brazil’s national policies in these areas are of global relevance and Brazil has also set itself ambitious targets here at the international level – most recently with its nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement.
Germany, for its part, is a world leader in this area with its innovative climate and environmental technology, its energy transition and its efforts to build a green economy. Germany is highly committed worldwide to sustainable development, in particular protecting the climate and preserving biodiversity. That is why Germany’s development cooperation with Brazil focuses on jointly addressing these global issues: climate protection and preserving biodiversity. Priority areas of the two countries’ extensive cooperation on sustainable development are the protection and sustainable use of tropical forest and promoting renewable energies and energy efficiency.
With an area of 4.8 million km², Brazil’s tropical forests make up approximately ten percent of the world’s total tropical forest area. And Brazil’s 2.5 million animal and plant species make it the world’s most biodiverse country. They also constitute a gigantic carbon sink and regulate regional and global hydrologic cycles. Since the 1990s, Germany has been cooperating with Brazil to preserve the country’s tropical forests and its current engagement includes protected areas management, land and land rights issues, the sustainable use (production and marketing) of natural resources, forest restoration, management of indigenous areas and climate funding as part of REDD+.
By providing advice and funding and setting up pilot plants for wind power, photovoltaic and concentrated solar power, biogas and energy efficiency, Germany is helping to establish a climate-friendly energy mix in Brazil. In line with the joint declaration on the establishment of a German-Brazilian urbanisation partnership, which was adopted at the intergovernmental consultations, attention is increasingly focusing on energy-efficient and sustainable urban development.
Given Brazil’s development successes, triangular cooperation arrangements – to pass on the experience it has gained to third countries – also play a role in cooperation.
The armed forces of Brazil and Germany have maintained good and close relations since 1962.
As part of military training assistance, Germany offers an annual contingent of training places to high-ranking members of the Brazilian military. There is also a lively exchange between the two countries in terms of expertise and personnel.
The Bilateral Annual Programme, which has been in place since 2012, encompassed 34 coordinated measures in 2017. They relate to issues of security policy, general operational command and command support, the conduct of projects in different branches of the armed forces, medical services and training. Under the programme, there are regular exchanges of personnel for officer and NCO training and further training.
This text is intended as a source of basic information. It is regularly updated. No liability can be accepted for the accuracy or completeness of its contents.