Germany, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland have all acceded to the Schengen Agreement and are thus Schengen states.
The Schengen area thus includes all EU member states except Ireland and Cyprus; at present the EU members Bulgaria and Romania only apply some of the Schengen provisions. Until these three countries apply what is known as the Schengen acquis in full, as is their aim, passport controls will remain in place at internal borders. In addition to the EU countries already mentioned, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are also Schengen states.
Holders of Schengen visas (text on the visa reads “valid for Schengen states” in the language of the issuing country) may spend up to 90 days in a given 180 days period in the Schengen area, provided their visa is valid at the time. The same applies to holders of most national residence permits and national category D visas issued by individual Schengen states for long‑term visits of more than three months. A separate visa may well be needed for travel to other EU states which are not Schengen states.