G7 Japan 2023 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting Communiqué
April 18, 2023 Karuizawa, Nagano
We, the G7 Foreign Ministers of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the United States of America (U.S.), and the High Representative of the European Union, underline our strong sense of unity as the world navigates grave threats to the international system, including Russia’s continued war of aggression against Ukraine. We reaffirm our commitment to collective action to address global challenges, including climate change, pollution, loss of biodiversity, health, and food and energy security, and to uphold and reinforce the free and open international order based on the rule of law, respecting the United Nations (UN) Charter. We will continue to work with our partners to promote open, transparent, resilient, and sustainable societies that champion human rights, justice, and dignity, and address the needs of the most vulnerable. We reaffirm our intention to promote human security and continue building a global community that leaves no one behind. We call on all partners to join us in addressing these pressing global challenges and to work together to build a better, more prosperous, and more secure future.
II. PROMOTING PEACE AND SECURITY
1 Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine
We once again condemn in the strongest possible terms Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, which constitutes a serious violation of international law, including the UN Charter. Russia must withdraw all forces and equipment from Ukraine immediately and unconditionally. We recommitted today to supporting Ukraine for as long as it takes and to providing sustained security, economic, and institutional support to help Ukraine defend itself, secure its free and democratic future, and deter future Russian aggression.
We reiterate our support for President Zelenskyy’s efforts to promote a comprehensive, just and lasting peace, in line with the UN Charter, and we support the basic principles outlined in his Peace Formula. We also welcome the resolution A/RES/ES-11/6, which was adopted on February 23, 2023, with the broad support of the international community at the Emergency Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA). We will continue to help Ukraine repair and restore its critical energy and environmental infrastructure and reemphasize our strong support for Ukraine’s energy security. Ukraine’s anti-corruption and domestic reform efforts must continue, and we will support them. In this regard, we reiterate our full confidence in the G7 Ambassadors Support Group in Ukraine and its role of supporting the implementation process.
Russia’s irresponsible nuclear rhetoric and its threat to deploy nuclear weapons in Belarus are unacceptable. Any use of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons by Russia would be met with severe consequences. We recall the importance of the 77-year record of non-use of nuclear weapons since 1945. We condemn Russia’s continued seizure and militarization of Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP), which could lead to potentially severe consequences for nuclear safety and security. We support the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) efforts to help strengthen nuclear safety and security in Ukraine, including the Director General’s leadership on efforts at the ZNPP.
We remain committed to intensifying sanctions against Russia, coordinating and fully enforcing them, including through the Enforcement Coordination Mechanism, and countering Russia’s and third parties’ attempts to evade and undermine our sanctions measures. We reiterate our call on third parties to cease assistance to Russia’s war, or face severe costs. We will reinforce our coordination to prevent and respond to third parties supplying weapons to Russia and continue to take actions against those who materially support Russia’s war against Ukraine. We are determined, consistent with our respective legal systems, that Russia’s sovereign assets in our jurisdictions will remain immobilized until there is a resolution of the conflict that addresses Russia’s violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. Any resolution to the conflict must ensure Russia pays for the damage it has caused.
There can be no impunity for war crimes and other atrocities such as Russia's attacks against civilians and critical civilian infrastructure. We further condemn the unlawful transfer and deportation of Ukrainians, including children, and conflict-related sexual violence against Ukrainians. We reiterate our commitment to holding those responsible to account consistent with international law, including by supporting the efforts of international mechanisms, in particular the International Criminal Court. We support exploring the creation of an internationalized tribunal based in Ukraine’s judicial system to prosecute the crime of aggression against Ukraine. In addition, we underscore the importance of the protection and preservation of Ukrainian cultural properties and heritage damaged and threatened by the war of aggression.
Russia’s weaponization of food and energy resources has compounded economic vulnerabilities, exacerbated already dire humanitarian crises, and escalated global food and energy insecurity. We will continue to provide assistance, including food-related aid, to help affected countries and populations.
We reiterate the importance of a free and open Indo-Pacific, which is inclusive, prosperous, secure, based on the rule of law, and that protects shared principles including sovereignty, territorial integrity and peaceful resolution of disputes, fundamental freedoms and human rights. We reaffirm individual initiatives of the G7 members and welcome those of our partners to enhance their engagement with the region. We underscore our commitment to further strengthening our coordination among the G7 on the region, to working with regional partners, including ASEAN and its member states. We reaffirm our unwavering support for ASEAN centrality and unity and our commitment to promoting cooperation in line with the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific. We also reaffirm our partnership with Pacific Island countries and reiterate the importance of supporting their priorities and needs, in accordance with the Pacific Islands Forum’s 2050 Strategy for the Blue Pacific Continent, including through the 4th International Conference on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in 2024. We welcome and further encourage efforts made by the private sector, universities and think tanks, which contribute to realizing a free and open Indo-Pacific.
We recognize the importance of engaging candidly with and expressing our concerns directly to China. We acknowledge the need to work together with China on global challenges as well as areas of common interest, including on climate change, biodiversity, global health security, and gender equality. We reiterate our call for China to act as a responsible member of the international community. We stand prepared to work together to build constructive and stable relations through dialogue and to promote global economic recovery and people-to-people exchanges in a mutually beneficial way. It is in the interest of all countries, including China, to ensure transparent, predictable, and fair business environments. Legitimate business activities and interests of foreign companies must be protected from unfair, anti-competitive, and non-market practices, including through illegitimate technology transfer or data disclosure in exchange for market access. We encourage China to uphold its commitments to act responsibly in cyberspace, including refraining from conducting or supporting cyber-enabled intellectual property theft for commercial gain.
We remind China of the need to uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and abstain from threats, coercion, intimidation, or the use of force. We remain seriously concerned about the situation in the East and South China Seas. We strongly oppose any unilateral attempts to change the status quo by force or coercion. There is no legal basis for China’s expansive maritime claims in the South China Sea, and we oppose China’s militarization activities in the region. We emphasize the universal and unified character of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and reaffirm UNCLOS’ important role in setting out the legal framework that governs all activities in the oceans and the seas. We reiterate that the award rendered by the Arbitral Tribunal on July 12, 2016, is a significant milestone, which is legally binding upon the parties to those proceeding, and a useful basis for peacefully resolving disputes between the parties.
We reaffirm the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait as an indispensable element in security and prosperity in the international community, and call for the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues. There is no change in the basic positions of the G7 members on Taiwan, including stated one China policies. We support Taiwan’s meaningful participation in international organizations, including in the World Health Assembly and WHO technical meetings, as a member where statehood is not a prerequisite and as an observer or guest where it is. The international community should be able to benefit from the experience of all partners. We continue to raise our concerns with China on reported human rights violations and abuses, including in Xinjiang and Tibet. We reiterate our concerns over the continued erosion of Hong Kong’s autonomy rights and freedoms, and call on China to act in accordance with its international commitments and legal obligations, including those enshrined in the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law.
We call on China to act in accordance with its obligations under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.
4 North Korea
We strongly condemn North Korea’s unprecedented number of unlawful ballistic missile launches, including the April 13 launch of what North Korea claimed as a solid-fuel Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. Each of these launches violated multiple United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs). North Korea’s actions, together with increasingly escalatory and destabilizing rhetoric regarding the use of nuclear weapons, undermine regional stability and pose a grave threat to international peace and security. We demand North Korea refrain from any other destabilizing or provocative actions, including any further nuclear tests or launches that use ballistic missile technology. Such actions must be met with a swift, united, and robust international response, including further significant measures to be taken by the UN Security Council (UNSC).
We reiterate our unwavering commitment to the goal of North Korea’s complete, verifiable, and irreversible abandonment of its nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programs, and any other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs in accordance with relevant UNSCRs. We urge North Korea to fully comply with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and IAEA safeguards, and to sign and ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). North Korea cannot and will never have the status of a nuclear-weapon State under the NPT. We call on North Korea to accept repeated offers of dialogue, including from Japan, the U.S., and the Republic of Korea.
It is critical that sanctions be fully and scrupulously implemented by all states and remain in place for as long as North Korea’s WMD and ballistic missile programs exist. We call for greater international coordination to counter North Korea’s malicious cyber activities.
We remain deeply concerned about the growing humanitarian crisis in North Korea, which is driven by North Korea’s choice to prioritize its unlawful weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missile programs over the welfare of the people in North Korea. We deplore North Korea’s systematic human rights violations and urge North Korea to respect human rights, facilitate access for international humanitarian organizations, and resolve the abductions issue immediately.
We continue to strongly condemn the military coup in Myanmar, remain deeply concerned about the deteriorating security, humanitarian, human rights, and political situation, and express our solidarity with its people. We strongly condemn the April 11 airstrike by the Myanmar military in Kanbalu Township in Sagaing Region that killed a large number of civilians, including children. We call on the Myanmar military to immediately cease all violence, release all political prisoners and those arbitrarily detained, and return the country to a genuinely democratic path. We condemn further exclusion of forty Myanmar political parties, including the National League for Democracy, from the political process by the Myanmar military. The Myanmar military should create an environment for inclusive and peaceful dialogue, which includes all relevant stakeholders in the country. We also call for safe and unimpeded humanitarian access to all people, especially the most vulnerable. We continue to support ASEAN’s efforts to implement the Five-Point Consensus, including through the ASEAN Chair and ASEAN Special Envoy to Myanmar. We also reaffirm support for the UN Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General (UNSG) on Myanmar and welcome UNSCR 2669 on the situation in Myanmar, which calls for the immediate cessation of violence, the respect for human rights and fundamental freedom, and the protection of civilians. We reiterate our call on all states to prevent the flow of arms into Myanmar. We stress the need to create conditions for the voluntary, safe, dignified, and sustainable return of all displaced persons, including Rohingya refugees.
We note with grave concern increased threats to stability in Afghanistan and the deteriorating humanitarian and economic situation. We express our strongest opposition to the Taliban’s increasing restrictions on human rights and fundamental freedoms. In particular, we condemn the Taliban’s systematic abuses of human rights of women and girls and discrimination against the members of religious and ethnic minorities. All Afghans must enjoy full, equal, and meaningful participation in all spheres of public life, access to life saving humanitarian aid and basic services, including education, and freedom of movement and freedom of expression. These are prerequisites for peace, stability, and prosperity in Afghanistan. Unimpeded access of aid workers is essential for the effective delivery of assistance. We call for the immediate reversal of unacceptable decisions restricting human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the latest bans prohibiting Afghan women from working for NGOs and the UN.
We remain concerned about the persistent lack of political inclusivity and representative governance. We urge the Taliban to take significant steps to engage in credible and inclusive national dialogue, in which all Afghans, regardless of gender, ethnicity, or religious and political belief, can have a voice. We recognize the need for conveying unified messages to the Taliban in coordination with regional countries and other international partners. We underscore the Taliban’s responsibility to ensure respect for human rights and a dignified life of all Afghans, the country’s stability and recovery, as well as to prevent Afghanistan from becoming a safe haven for terrorism. We are united in condemning the recurring terrorist attacks, including those that target specific ethnic and religious groups. We support the mandate of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), and the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan to work towards achieving peace and stability.
We reiterate our clear determination that Iran must never develop a nuclear weapon, and urge Iran to cease nuclear escalations. We call on Iran to fulfill its legal obligations and political commitments regarding nuclear non-proliferation without further delay. We remain deeply concerned about Iran’s unabated escalation of its nuclear program, which has no credible civilian justification and brings it dangerously close to actual weapon-related activities. We recall recent sampling by the IAEA which found particles of uranium highly enriched to 83.7 percent. A diplomatic solution remains our preferred way to resolve international concerns regarding Iran’s nuclear program. In that context, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action continues to provide a useful reference. We take note of Iran’s stated readiness to provide the IAEA with further information and access to address the outstanding safeguards issues, and its agreement to allow the IAEA to implement further appropriate verification and monitoring activities. We call on Iran to uphold its safeguards obligations and stated commitments with prompt and concrete action.
We express our grave concern regarding Iran’s continued destabilizing activities, including the transfer of missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and related technologies to state and non-state actors and proxy groups in breach of UNSCRs including 2231 and 2216. Iran must stop supporting the Russian military in its war of aggression. In particular, we call upon Iran to cease transferring armed UAVs, which have been used in Ukraine. Indiscriminate attacks against civilians and critical civilian infrastructure constitute war crimes. We reiterate our conviction that the transfer of ballistic missiles would represent a major escalation. We welcome initiatives to improve bilateral relations among countries and de-escalate tensions in the region, including Iran and Saudi Arabia’s recent agreement to restore ties. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of ensuring maritime security in the Middle East’s waterways, including through the Strait of Hormuz and the Bab al Mandab, and call on Iran not to interfere with the lawful exercise of navigational rights and freedoms by all vessels.
We reiterate our profound concern over Iran’s systemic human rights violations and abuses, especially with Iran’s efforts to oppress peaceful dissent through threats and intimidation. We condemn the targeting of individuals, including women, girls, minority groups, as well as journalists, in and outside of Iran. We call on Iran to take concrete action to address these issues. We strongly reject Iran’s targeting of dual and foreign citizens, and call on Iran’s leadership to end all unjust and arbitrary detentions.
8 Cooperation for peace and stability in the Middle East and North Africa
De-escalation, stability, and regional prosperity are key priorities. We call on Israelis and Palestinians to take steps to build trust toward the realization of a two-state solution, which envisions Israel and a viable Palestinian State living side by side in peace and security and mutual recognition. All parties must refrain from unilateral actions that undermine the prospects for a two-state solution, including settlement activities and incitement to violence. We strongly condemn all forms of violence against civilians, including terrorism. We reiterate our support for the historic status quo in Jerusalem and Jordan’s special role in this regard. We welcome the recent meetings in Aqaba, Jordan, and Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, between Jordan, Egypt, the U.S., Israel, and the Palestinian Authority aimed at de-escalating tensions, and hope the commitments in the resulting Joint Communiques will be fulfilled in good faith. We will continue assisting the Palestinians to enhance their economic self-reliance. We call for the international community’s broad and sustained support for the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.
Regarding Yemen, we reiterate our support to the Special Envoy of the UNSG and call on all parties, especially the Houthis, to secure a durable ceasefire and work towards a comprehensive, durable, and inclusive Yemeni-led political process. We also call on the Houthis to lift any impediments to the delivery of humanitarian assistance, especially with regard to women and girls. We express our appreciation for the concerted efforts by the Government of Yemen and other countries in the region, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and the Sultanate of Oman. We call on all relevant parties and the international community to support the implementation of the UN-led plan to salvage the FSO Safer, including swiftly filling the remaining funding gap.
In order to achieve stability and promote unity in Libya, we support the SRSG’s proposal to identify a pathway towards reaching political consensus and holding free, fair, and inclusive presidential and parliamentary elections by the end of 2023. We urge all actors to preserve stability on the ground and to commit to working constructively on the political process.
We encourage and support the Tunisian government to quickly implement its own economic reform program to address the country’s economic situation and reach an agreement with the IMF.
In Syria, we remain firmly committed to an inclusive, UN-facilitated political process consistent with UNSCR 2254. We underscore the need for the international community to continue supporting the UN Special Envoy. We reiterate that the international community can only consider reconstruction assistance after there is authentic and enduring progress towards political solution in line with UNSCR 2254. We condemn the ongoing atrocities against the Syrian people. We are firmly committed to accountability for those responsible for the use of chemical weapons and violations of international law, including international humanitarian law and international human rights law, as applicable. We continue to urge the Syrian regime to comply with its obligations under UNSCR 2118. We also confirm our continued commitment to supporting the Syrian people through all necessary means, including early recovery assistance as appropriate. We call for full and unhindered humanitarian access to all Syrians in need, particularly through UN cross-border aid for which there is no alternative in scope or scale.
We stand in solidarity with the peoples of Türkiye and Syria affected by the horrifying February earthquakes and plan to continue our support in tackling the consequences of this catastrophe. It is also vital that humanitarian aid reaches all those who require it, safely and unhindered, as efficiently as possible.
9 Working together with Central Asian countries
We affirm our intent to support the sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of Central Asian countries. We commit to working together with Central Asian countries to address regional challenges, including the consequences of Russia’s war of aggression, the destabilizing effect of the situation in Afghanistan, food and energy insecurity, terrorism, and the consequences of climate change. We are determined to foster sustainable connectivity, transportation, and trade and energy links to enhance regional prosperity. Furthermore, we remain committed to strengthening our cooperation with Central Asian countries on socio-economic development, women’s economic empowerment, human rights, gender equality, domestic and institutional reforms, and regional security. We welcome the intensification of regional cooperation of Central Asian countries in the abovementioned fields and remain committed to support such cooperation.
10 G7-Africa Partnership
We are deepening our partnerships with African countries and regional organizations, including the African Union (AU). We support African calls for stronger representation in international fora.
We reiterate our strong commitment to supporting governments in the region to tackle the underlying conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, violent extremism, and instability across Africa. We are seriously concerned about the growing presence of the Russia-affiliated Wagner Group forces on the continent, and their destabilizing impact and human rights abuses. We urge all actors to respect international human rights law and international humanitarian law and reiterate our call for accountability of all those responsible. We also call for safe, unimpeded access for humanitarian actors to reach those in need.
In the Sahel, we commend the efforts by the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali for helping protect the lives of civilians, in the context of political and security constraints on the mission. We take note of the UNSG’s strategic review and the parameters set to allow for the pursuit of the mission. We are also seriously concerned about the spread of terrorist threats and activities towards coastal countries in West Africa. Acknowledging the need to improve government responsiveness to citizens’ needs and the importance of free and fair elections, we call for comprehensive implementation of the transition charters in countries on the path to constitutional order.
There is an urgent need to reinforce peace and security in the Horn of Africa, meet serious humanitarian needs, and build resilience in the region. We welcome the positive developments stemming from the cessation of hostilities agreement between the Government of Ethiopia and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front, commend the AU for its mediation, and urge progress on transitional justice and accountability. We call on both parties to remain committed to fully implementing the agreement, including unhindered access for international human rights monitors. We also call for international support for the Somali President’s reform priorities and the fight against al-Shabaab. We strongly condemn the ongoing fighting between the Sudan Armed Forces and the Rapid Support Forces, which threatens the security and safety of Sudanese civilians and undermines efforts to restore Sudan’s democratic transition. We urge the parties to end hostilities immediately without pre-conditions. We call on all actors to renounce violence, return to negotiations, and take active steps to reduce tensions and ensure the safety of all civilians, including diplomatic and humanitarian personnel.
We reaffirm our commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity, and territorial integrity of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We condemn the advance of the UN-sanctioned March 23 Movement (M23) armed group, exacerbating an extreme humanitarian situation. We urge M23 to end any further advances and to withdraw from all territories it controls. All armed groups must immediately cease all violent acts and disarm. We demand the immediate and full implementation of the cessation of hostilities agreed on March 3. We welcome regional stabilization efforts, including East African Community-led Nairobi process and heads of state dialogue mediated by Angola, and underscore the critical role of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC in protecting civilians and supporting the DRC government’s peace consolidation efforts.
11 Cooperation with Latin American and Caribbean Partners
We highlight the importance of enhancing cooperation with countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to uphold shared interests as well as values. We are committed to working together to address economic challenges, natural disasters and climate change, strengthen the rule of law, enhance socio-economic resilience, promote trade and investments, and address global issues.
We are concerned about the economic, political, and humanitarian situation in Venezuela that is driving forced displacement, leading to the unprecedented migration flows in the region and overstretching the hosting countries’ capacities. We call for humanitarian access to address the urgent needs of those affected by the multilayered crisis. The way forward lies in Venezuelan-led negotiations leading to free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections for the benefit of the Venezuelan people.
We reiterate our commitment to supporting, together with other actors of the international community, all efforts to strengthen public institutions and resolve the worsening security and humanitarian situation in Haiti. We condemn the violence and criminal activities perpetrated by armed gangs and those who support them, and we welcome UNSCR 2653 establishing a sanctions regime for Haiti. We support the role of the UN Integrated Office in Haiti and call on all stakeholders to overcome differences and achieve progress in the dialogues on the basis of the political accord of 2022, the “National Consensus for an Inclusive Transition and Transparent Elections”. We reiterate the importance of restoring stability in Haiti and establishing the conditions necessary to allow for free and fair elections, as well as facilitating the unhindered provision of humanitarian support to the Haitian people.
We note with concern the elevated humanitarian and security needs in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. These countries suffer from large-scale displacements, rising food prices, and insecurity challenges. We encourage existing and new efforts by donors, including private actors, to meet the urgent needs outlined in the respective 2023 UN Humanitarian Response Plans.
We follow very carefully the situation in Nicaragua, where human rights violations and abuses continue. We condemn the decision of Nicaragua to arbitrarily revoke the nationality of over 300 Nicaraguan citizens. We call on Nicaragua to end the widespread repression of civil society, private sector and political actors, release all political prisoners, respect its international obligations, and provide remedies for violations and abuses.
III. ADDRESSING GLOBAL CHALLENGES
12 Free and open international order
We are determined to strengthen the free and open international order based on the rule of law, respect for the UN Charter, the sovereignty, and territorial integrity of all states, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Countries, large and small, benefit from these principles. We are determined to uphold and protect them, and we stand ready to work with all willing partners in this endeavor.
The prohibition of threats or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter, constitutes the cornerstone of the post-war international system. Yet, territorial ambition is again driving some states to return to rule by force, so we have redoubled our efforts to uphold peace guided by the rule of law. The prohibition on the acquisition of territory resulting from the threat or use of force, reaffirmed in the Friendly Relations Declaration of 1970, should be observed in good faith. We strongly oppose any unilateral attempts to change the peacefully established status of territories by force or coercion anywhere in the world. In this regard, sending regular or irregular forces to unilaterally annex a territory is prohibited.
We emphasize that free and fair trade is key to resilient and sustainable development for all, particularly the most vulnerable. We recognize that free and equitable public access to scientific knowledge is integral to solving global challenges. We also recognize the importance of enhancing international action to detect, deter, and end illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, including through support to developing countries.
We reconfirm the need to accelerate cooperation with our partners to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism, including terrorist financing and misuse of cyberspace for terrorist purposes. We reiterate the importance of combating transnational organized crime, including crimes related to drug trafficking, small arms and light weapons trafficking, human trafficking, and child abuse, both online and offline. We recognize the significant public health and security challenges posed by synthetic drugs. We will enhance efforts to stop the illicit manufacture and trafficking of these substances and to address the public health consequences of substance use. We remain committed to safe, orderly, and regular migration around the world and will continue to engage in preventing and countering migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. Our approach will continue to be human rights oriented, survivor-centered, and gender-responsive, and will focus on identifying and protecting those most at-risk, as well as prosecuting the perpetrators. We are committed to working together to strengthen cross-border law enforcement efforts and pursue accountability for corruption. We commit to ensure strong and effective implementation of our existing obligations and commitments to counter corruption, including efforts to fight against foreign bribery, and work to advance our common anti-corruption priorities.
13 Global governance
We reiterate the importance of multilateralism and international cooperation in promoting peace, stability, and prosperity. We express our support for the vision of the UNSG’s Our Common Agenda. We believe the UN should be strengthened to address the changing international environment and challenges to collective security. In this regard, we highlight the voices of the overwhelming majority of Member States in the UNGA, who have sent a clear signal of condemnation of Russia’s war of aggression, despite Russia blocking decisions in the UNSC. We welcome the commitment of France, the U.K., and the U.S. to voluntarily refrain from use of the veto in the UNSC except in rare and extraordinary circumstances, and hope that the remaining permanent members will join them. We recall in this context the ACT code of conduct and the French-Mexican Initiative on suspension of the veto in case of mass atrocities. We are committed to working with all UN Member States to strengthen the roles of the UNSG as well as the UNGA. We also recommit to the reform of the UNSC.
Underscoring the shared responsibilities of the world’s major economies to bridge the SDGs financing gap, we strive to implement the 2030 Agenda and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and recognize the need for accelerated action to meet them by 2030. We are committed to contributing to the success of the 2023 SDG Summit, the UN Food Systems Summit Stocktaking Moment, and the 2024 Summit of the Future. We reaffirm our efforts to enhance support for vulnerable populations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where projections suggest extreme poverty will become increasingly concentrated, including by promoting the concept of human security in the new era. We welcome the Chair’s Summary of the G7 Senior Development Officials meeting as published on March 20, 2023, which stresses the critical centrality of sustainable development efforts in all G7 work and acknowledges the ongoing revision of Japan’s Development Cooperation Charter. We welcome the “Summit for a New Global Financing Pact” to be held in Paris in June, aiming at catalyzing and complementing ongoing efforts to realize the 2030 Agenda overall. We reaffirm the need for strengthened international financial institutions and underscore the role of multilateral developments banks (MDBs) in the SDGs achievement, including in crisis affected contexts. We support the ongoing efforts for MDBs reform, including the World Bank Group evolution roadmap. We also reaffirm our support for the G20 and will support our Leaders in working towards a successful outcome at the New Delhi Summit in September 2023.
14 Peacebuilding and peacekeeping
We renew our commitment to strengthening peacebuilding efforts to address increasingly complex and interconnected security challenges. We must build resilient societies, protect human rights, support good governance, and invest in people to achieve sustainable peace. We condemn sexual and gender-based violence, especially when related to conflict.
We highly value the role of the UN and support an integrated approach to peacebuilding and peacekeeping. We support the Peacebuilding Commission in its role as a convener of relevant stakeholders and an advisory body to other UN organs. We reaffirm that the UN peacekeeping operations and special political missions are valuable tools to prevent escalation and the recurrence of conflicts and to protect civilians where mandated to do so. We further reaffirm our commitment to and support for the UNSG’s “Action for Peacekeeping” and “Action for Peacekeeping Plus” to reform and strengthen such operations. We will enhance capabilities and ensure the safety and security of those deployed, for example through the UN Triangular Partnership Programme. We also underscore the importance of strengthening the global implementation of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda. We reiterate our commitment to contributing to the discussion in the UN on a “New Agenda for Peace.”
15 Disarmament and non-proliferation
We are committed to maintaining and strengthening disarmament and non-proliferation efforts for a more secure, stable, and safer world and endorse the Statement of the G7 Non-Proliferation Directors’ Group of April 17, 2023.
Cognizant of the G7 Leaders meeting to be held in Hiroshima, which together with Nagasaki offers a reminder of the unprecedented devastation and immense human suffering the people of Hiroshima and Nagasaki experienced as a result of the atomic bombings of 1945, we reaffirm our commitment to the ultimate goal of a world without nuclear weapons with undiminished security for all, achieved through a realistic, pragmatic, and responsible approach. In this regard, Japan’s “Hiroshima Action Plan” is a welcome contribution embodying a pragmatic approach given the current harsh security environment. We underscore the importance of disarmament and non-proliferation education, while encouraging other leaders, youth, and others to also visit Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The overall decline in global nuclear arsenals must continue and not be reversed. The NPT is the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and the foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. We call for the immediate commencement of long-overdue negotiations of a treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices (FMCT) while urging all states that have not yet done so to declare and maintain voluntary moratoria on the production of such material. We underline the urgent need to bring the CTBT into force. We express our concern over Russia’s announcement of its readiness to conduct a nuclear test, and we call for Russia’s adherence to its moratorium on nuclear tests.
The G7 is committed to working with all states to further identify and implement measures to minimize risks of nuclear weapons use and to strengthen arms control. We recall the Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States issued on January 3, 2022 on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races, and reaffirm that a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought. We call on Russia to recommit – in words and deeds – to the principles enshrined in that Statement. We welcome the transparency of G7 nuclear-weapon States in providing data on their nuclear forces and the objective size of their nuclear arsenals. We call on others that have not yet done so to follow suit. We deeply regret Russia’s decision to suspend the New START Treaty, and call on Russia to return to its full implementation and U.S.-Russia dialogue on reducing nuclear risks. We are also concerned about China’s ongoing and accelerating expansion of its nuclear arsenal, and development of increasingly sophisticated delivery systems, without transparency, good faith arms control or risk reductions measures. The G7 urges China to engage promptly in strategic risk reduction discussions with the U.S. and to promote stability through greater transparency of China’s nuclear weapon policies, plans, and capabilities. Our security policies are based on the understanding that nuclear weapons, for as long as they exist, should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and prevent war and coercion.
Those G7 countries which opt for nuclear power, or related peaceful nuclear applications, recognize that the use of nuclear energy, science, and technology contributes to providing affordable low-carbon energy, while adhering to the highest standards of nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation. We recognize the essential role of the IAEA in assisting Member States to build human and institutional capacities in support of these standards. We underscore the importance of increasing the transparency of the management of civil plutonium. We call on all states that committed to reporting annually their holdings of all plutonium in peaceful nuclear activities to the IAEA to fulfill those commitments. We also support the universal adoption of key safeguards agreements, including Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, IAEA Additional Protocols and, where applicable, revised Small Quantities Protocol.
We recall the G7 Leaders’ commitment to evaluate measures to reduce reliance on civil nuclear-related goods from Russia and to assist countries seeking to diversify their supplies.
We underscore that export controls remain a key instrument in maintaining international security and stability, and that all States have the legal obligation to take and enforce effective measures to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery under UNSCR 1540. Multilateral export control regimes have a central role in this regard. We continue to coordinate among the G7 and work with other states in strengthening effective and responsible export controls on materials, technology, and research that could be used for military purposes. We reiterate our commitment to review the material and technology that we control, including by coordinating our respective efforts and supporting work to update multilateral export control regime lists to keep pace with rapid technological developments. We reaffirm our determination to work together with our partners to counter the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. We reiterate our commitment to ensure that the G7-led 31-member Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction retains its leadership role in addressing threats posed by weapons and materials of mass destruction.
16 Economic resilience and economic security
We express our concern that threats to economic security are increasing and emphasize the urgent need to enhance our coordination and cooperation within and beyond the G7. We express our continued commitment to strengthening economic security, especially for the most vulnerable countries. We emphasize the importance of honoring international norms and obligations to safeguard global economic security and resilience, and reaffirm our commitment to building global economic resilience and responding to harmful practices that undermine the rules-based multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core. We share the view that resilient supply chains should be built in a transparent, diversified, secure, sustainable, trustworthy and reliable manner.
We remain committed to increasing our vigilance and enhancing our cooperation to counter threats that are meant to undermine not only our interests but also global security and stability, including economic coercion. We stress the importance of equipping ourselves with necessary means to counter economic coercion and working together with like-minded partners, including partners with emerging or developing economies, to improve our assessment, preparedness, deterrence, and response to such threats, based on robust diplomatic coordination.
We also emphasize the urgent need to take measures against illegitimate or forced state-led acquisition of critical technologies and intellectual property, especially when this constitutes a risk to the security of target countries. Critical and emerging technologies will have a transformative effect on the way societies function, and their unexpected, malicious, untrustworthy, or improper use has the potential to disrupt national and individual security. We reiterate that the design, development, governance, export, and use of such technologies should be guided by shared democratic values.
We also welcome the G7 Roma-Lyon Group’s efforts to bridge discussions on economic security and on counter-terrorism and anti-crime efforts to foster coordination and collaboration with private companies and other non-governmental partners, and to enhance the law enforcement responses, including preventive measures.
17 Development finance and infrastructure
We reaffirm our commitment to narrowing the infrastructure investment gap by delivering financing and other support for sustainable, resilient, inclusive, and quality infrastructure. We will work together to operationalize the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII), including through country-led partnerships and investments in enabling environments for sustainable infrastructure development. We aim to focus investments on areas that drive equitable growth and resilience, including climate and energy, connectivity including ICT and transport, food security, health, and gender.
As the SDGs are reaching their halfway point in 2023, we need to strengthen the efforts to revitalize international cooperation to achieve SDGs in a comprehensive manner, and we are concerned about the increasing debt burdens in many developing countries and crowding out investments in transitioning to greener, more resilient, and inclusive economies, highlighting the importance of fair and open lending practices. We aim to enhance creditor coordination for debt restructuring and to improve the implementation of our existing frameworks through relevant capacity development.
We are determined to promote transparent and fair development finance practices and will work together to address the implementation gap of existing principles such as debt transparency and sustainability, internationally coordinated debt treatments and the respect of the comparability of treatment, fair appraisal, selection and lending practice, and quality infrastructure investment. In this regard, we call on all actors to adhere to internationally recognized rules, standards, and principles, including the G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment and the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. We commit to deepening discussions and fostering cooperation among like-minded partners.
18 Outer space and cybersecurity
Given that our societies are increasingly reliant on space systems, we are committed to promoting the maintenance of a peaceful, safe, secure, and sustainable space environment and call on all states to work together for future generations. We reiterate the importance of addressing the issues of space debris, which is growing exponentially. We strongly support the implementation of international guidelines adopted at COPUOS and welcome national efforts to develop further solutions for space debris mitigation and remediation. Supporting UNGA resolution 77/41, we commit not to conduct destructive direct-ascent anti-satellite missile testing and encourage others to follow suit. We remain deeply concerned about increasing threats to space systems. We strongly support the UN Open Ended Working Group on “Reducing space threats through norms, rules and principles of responsible behaviors.” It is also important to jointly improve capabilities of Space Situational Awareness to avoid unintentional collision and better share such data.
We support an open, interoperable, reliable, and secure cyberspace. We are concerned about growing cyberspace threats and remain committed to countering challenges and promoting the rule of law in cyberspace. We encourage all states to deepen the substantive discussion on how existing international law, including the UN Charter, applies to cyberspace. We are determined to implement regional and global confidence building measures, promote internationally established, voluntary, and non-legally binding norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace, and enhance capacity building efforts. We are steadfast in disseminating existing international cooperation frameworks for investigation and prosecution and contributing to ongoing efforts to combat cybercrime.
19 Countering foreign interference including disinformation
We remain concerned by the increasing threats to our nations, economies and societies posed by foreign interference activities including disinformation, which aim to disrupt our democratic processes, destabilize our societies, endanger our people, and undermine our institutions and shared values. We are committed to promoting a free and open information environment without foreign information manipulation. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM) as part of our efforts to collectively safeguard against foreign threats to democracy, including foreign information threats, alongside other international efforts. We strongly condemn the widespread use of information manipulation and disinformation by Russia in order to gain support for its aggression against Ukraine. Access to, quality, and trustworthy information is key to combating information manipulation and disinformation, and we will redouble our efforts in this regard, including through supporting relevant international initiatives, such as the Partnership for Information and Democracy, and efforts by the UN, OECD, or elsewhere. We also commit to encouraging digital companies to bolster their platforms against any misuse for manipulation, while promoting a free, open, and secure Internet.
20 Energy security, climate change and environmental degradation
We recognize that achieving energy security and simultaneously accelerating the transformation towards net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 and halting and reversing biodiversity loss by 2030 is an urgent task. To that end, we reaffirm our determination to reduce energy consumption, promote energy efficiency, and fast-track clean, safe, and sustainable energy development and deployment, while reducing our dependency on fossil fuels, in order to speed the decarbonization of global energy systems. We reaffirm our determination to strengthen global energy governance and to ensure liquidity of energy markets through ways such as increased usage of clean energy, in order to prevent any country from leveraging energy exports as a tool of geopolitical coercion. We will work to strengthen secure, resilient, sustainable, responsible, transparent, and diverse critical minerals supply chains essential for net zero economies and clean technologies, and diversify wider clean energy supply chains to support the global energy transition. Recalling our commitment to the goal of achieving fully or predominantly decarbonized power sectors by 2035, we remain committed to working to ensure access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy for all. We will foster international cooperation to accelerate clean and sustainable energy transitions to keep a temperature limit of 1.5°C within reach. We stress the importance of objective data and analysis as well as dialogue among stakeholders with a view to stabilizing energy markets.
Concerning the accelerating impacts of the triple global crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution, and in light of the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we reaffirm our unwavering commitment to strengthening the implementation of the Paris Agreement and Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF) in this critical decade, and will work towards a successful United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP28. We welcome the conclusion of the negotiations for an international and legally binding instrument under the UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). We call on all actors to take scaled-up, immediate, ambitious, and inclusive actions to ensure that their climate commitments are aligned with a 1.5 °C pathway to achieve global net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 at the latest. We also call on all countries to commit at COP28 to collectively peaking global GHG emissions as soon as possible by 2025 at the latest, revisiting and strengthening the 2030 targets in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) as necessary. We reaffirm our commitment to the developed country goal of jointly mobilizing 100 billion USD annually in climate finance through to 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation. We will continue accelerating our efforts to at least double the collective provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing countries from 2019 levels by 2025, and call on others to do the same. We reaffirm the need for robust G7 pledges and the broadening of the contributor base for the Green Climate Fund’s ambitious second replenishment process. We commit to aligning financial flows with the Paris Agreement and the KMGBF, and call on other countries and MDBs to do the same. We reaffirm the importance of Just Energy Transition Partnerships (JETPs), and welcome progress achieved on the JETP with South Africa, Indonesia and Vietnam, and the ongoing discussions with India and Senegal.
Protecting people living in climate vulnerable situations, including those in SIDS, Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and fragile states, is essential for human security and sustaining stability. We promote the empowerment and protection of groups that may be more adversely affected by climate change. We will continue to provide further support to advance adaptation and strengthen the resilience of those people and to take timely and effective actions to reduce risks posed to peace and stability by climate change and environmental degradation. We recognize the particular concerns of many countries, including the member countries of the Pacific Island Forum and AOSIS, with respect to the stability of their baselines and maritime zones in the face of sea level rise. We emphasize the strong determination to work to successfully implement the decision at COP 27/the Paris Agreement-CMA4 to establish new funding arrangements for responding to loss and damage. We reaffirm the urgent need to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.
21 Food security, nutrition, and humanitarian assistance
We reaffirm that multiple factors including COVID-19 pandemic, soaring energy and food prices, climate change, biodiversity loss, and armed conflicts especially Russia’s war of aggression have disrupted global food systems including production and fertilizer and energy supply chains, exacerbating food insecurity and worsening malnutrition particularly in Africa and the Middle East. We acknowledge growing concerns about poor soil health and fertility, water scarcity, poor management of water resources, a lack of nutritious foods, and a lack of access to and affordability of fertilizers and underline the importance of adopting measures to build more resilient and sustainable supply chains.
We have responded to the food and nutrition crisis by strengthening efforts to prevent and treat all forms of malnutrition and by stepping up our assistance to affected countries, regions, and populations, including women and girls who are disproportionately impacted by the food and nutrition crisis. We also emphasize the importance of the efforts started within the framework of the Global Alliance for Food Security that was established by the G7 together with the World Bank. We reaffirm support to the G7 Famine Prevention and Humanitarian Crises Compact. We recognize the critical importance of the “Solidarity Lanes”, the “Black Sea Grain Initiative”, and the “Grain from Ukraine Initiative” to support the restoration of Ukraine’s agricultural sector and to prevent further food system shocks. We call upon Russia to stop threatening global food supplies and allow the Black Sea Grain Initiative to operate at its maximum potential and indefinitely.
We underline the importance of preventing and treating malnutrition and protecting the most vulnerable populations and of the right to adequate food. We consider access to affordable, safe, and nutritious food and the realization of the right to adequate food to be a basic human need. We affirm the necessity of enhancing agricultural related infrastructure, including processing, storage, irrigation, and transportation systems. We affirm our intention to accelerate support for particularly vulnerable countries, promote regional agricultural trade, strengthen food supply management, and build market linkages for smallholder farmers. We acknowledge that sustained investments in agricultural development helped reduce global hunger, poverty, and malnutrition. We affirm our commitment to mobilizing public and private sector partners to help vulnerable countries transform their agricultural sectors and sustainably increase agricultural productivity as they adapt to climate change and sustainably, nutritiously and safely feed growing populations and build long-term resilient and sustainable agriculture and food systems.
We reaffirm our commitment to humanitarian crisis prevention and response to support vulnerable populations severely affected by multiple crises. We are determined to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian assistance, such as anticipatory action and other measures, in line with the Grand Bargain and other commitments. We will continue to work with the international community towards the second Global Refugee Forum in December 2023. We also recognize the importance of the UNSG’s follow-up Action Agenda on Internal Displacement.
22 Global health
A healthy environment is precondition for human health and wellbeing. We are working together and cooperating with global partners to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future epidemics and pandemics. The One Health approach is an essential component of these efforts. We are determined to build more resilient health systems to improve prevention, preparedness, and response (PPR) for future pandemics, antimicrobial resistance, and other global health threats. We reiterate our commitment to draft and negotiate a WHO convention, agreement or other international instrument on pandemic PPR (WHO CA+), working with other WHO Member States in the Intergovernmental Negotiating Body. We are also negotiating targeted amendments to strengthen the International Health Regulations (2005).
We are committed to strengthening health systems and enhancing equitable and timely access to safe, high quality, affordable and effective medical countermeasures (MCMs), including in humanitarian settings. To this end, we are committed to supporting the strengthening of an end-to-end MCM ecosystem for future health emergencies. We emphasize the importance of promoting sustainable local and regional manufacturing and delivery based on public health needs. Achievement of universal health coverage (UHC), with Primary Health Care as a cornerstone, is critically important for the continued social and economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and to tackle other health challenges. We commit to ensuring the effective operationalization of the Pandemic Fund, which focuses on strengthening pandemic prevention and preparedness capacities.
We reaffirm our strong commitment to a comprehensive approach to mental health and psycho-social support for all and to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights for all individuals, including through strengthened coordination to advance sexual and reproductive, maternal, and child health, nutrition, and improved access to family planning. We are determined to work with others to maximize synergies and ensure ambitious action-oriented outcomes across UNGA High Level Meetings on pandemic PPR, UHC, and tuberculosis. We emphasize the importance of cooperative capacity-building efforts, including expanded surveillance and augmented laboratory capacity to strengthen global biosafety and security.
23 Gender Equality
We reaffirm the G7’s continued global leadership on gender equality and the promotion and protection of the rights of women and girls in all their diversity as well as LGBTQIA+ persons. We express our strong concern over the global rollback of women’s and girls’ rights in particular and the disproportionate impact of conflict and crisis on them. We are committed to the elimination of sexual and gender-based violence, including conflict-related and technologically-facilitated sexual violence. We underscore the importance of ensuring the full empowerment of women, as well as their full, equal and meaningful participation in all political and peace processes. We recognize the importance of advancing gender-responsive climate action, closing the digital gender gap, strengthening and formalizing the care economy, and breaking down gender barriers in education. We reaffirm our commitment to implementing the global WPS agenda in accordance with UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions.
24 Disaster-risk reduction
We are enhancing international cooperation on disaster risk reduction, recognizing that many countries are vulnerable to natural disasters and the resulting forced displacement. We fully acknowledge the importance of capacity building and early warning systems, in line with the UNSG’s “Early Warnings for All” initiative, adaptable procurement, and social protection systems with a view to strengthening resilience against disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change. We are also committed to accelerating international cooperation in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and welcome the output of its midterm review conducted by the UNDRR together with states and relevant stakeholders this year. Building on the outcome of COP27, we underline that such disaster risk reduction efforts contribute to averting, minimizing, and addressing the loss and damage associated with climate change and to achieve sustainable development. We stress the importance of taking anticipatory actions to prevent or reduce acute humanitarian crises before they fully unfold.