Germany has traditionally enjoyed a close partnership with Liechtenstein, based on shared history and culture as well as wide-ranging economic, political and personnel ties. Liechtenstein opened an Embassy in Berlin in 2002. Since 1992, the German Ambassador in Berne has also been accredited to Vaduz. There has been a German Honorary Consul in Liechtenstein since 2005. In 2008, Liechtenstein for its part appointed Honorary Consuls to Frankfurt am Main and Munich. Regular high-level contacts ensure a continuous exchange of views between the two governments. Cooperation is particularly close in the United Nations and other international organisations.
Alongside Switzerland, Germany is Liechtenstein’s most important trading and economic Partner - 21.2% of exports and 36.3% of imports were exchanged with Germany in 2019. Bilateral trade totalled 1.09 billion euro. In 2019, Liechtenstein investment in Germany totalled 5.5 billion euro, while German investment in Liechtenstein was to the tune of 933 million euro. In 2018, some 3000 people were employed in German‑majority‑owned companies in Liechtenstein. In 2018, some 180 Liechtenstein companies employed some 24,000 people in Germany, generating turnover of 5.97 billion euro. An agreement on mutual assistance in tax matters in accordance with OECD standards entered into force on 1 November 2010. A comprehensive double taxation agreement entered into force on 19 December 2012.
Cultural relations between Germany and Liechtenstein are close and wide-ranging. Liechtenstein’s cultural activities in Germany are considerable. Since 2000, Liechtenstein has been a regular participant at the Frankfurter Buchmesse - Frankfurt Book Fair. For many years now, there has been an intensive cultural exchange between Liechtenstein and Berlin’s Treptow-Köpenick district.
There is also close cooperation in the area of education, for example between teachers of German in the two countries. The 2015-2019 Activity Programme of the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK) and German-Speaking Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (D-EDK) – the EDK and D-EDK are comparable to the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK) – showed that the tasks and goals of the EDK also influence many aspects of Liechtenstein’s education policy. Interests are very similar in the following areas: agreements on the freedom of movement, the mutual recognition of university degrees, special needs education and education monitoring.
In the 2019 summer semester, there were 20 students from Liechenstein enrolled at German universities. Conversely, some 186 Germans were studying at universities in Liechtenstein in 2017.