Germany has traditionally enjoyed a close partnership with Liechtenstein based on shared history and culture, as well as wide-ranging economic, political and personnel ties. Liechtenstein has an embassy in Berlin and honorary consulates in Frankfurt am Main, Munich and Hamburg. The German Ambassador in Berne is also accredited to Vaduz. There is a German Honorary Consul in Liechtenstein. Regular high-level contacts ensure ongoing exchange between the two governments. Cooperation is particularly close in the United Nations and other international organisations.
Alongside Switzerland, Germany is Liechtenstein’s most important trading and economic partner. Bilateral trade totalled 1.09 billion euro in 2019, with 21.2 percent of Liechtenstein’s exports destined for Germany and 36.3 percent of imports coming from Germany. Liechtenstein investment in Germany totalled 5.5 billion euro, German investment in Liechtenstein 933 million euro.
In 2018, some 3000 people were employed in German-majority-owned companies in Liechtenstein. Some 180 Liechtenstein companies employed some 24,000 people in Germany, generating turnover of 5.97 billion euro. An agreement on mutual assistance in tax matters in accordance with OECD standards entered into force in 2010, while a comprehensive double taxation agreement entered into force in 2012.
Cultural relations between the two countries are close and wide-ranging. Liechtenstein’s engagement in Germany is considerable and includes many years of presence at the Frankfurter Buchmesse - Frankfurt Book Fair, as well as intensive exchange with Berlin’s Treptow-Köpenick district.
Close cooperation is also firmly anchored in the education sector, particularly when it comes to German teachers. The aims and tasks of the Swiss and German-Speaking Swiss Conferences of Cantonal Ministers of Education (comparable to Germany’s Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder) have a clear impact on Liechtenstein’s education policy.