Last updated in June 2017
Relations between the Holy See and the Federal Republic of Germany have traditionally been good. German Federal Presidents paid state visits to the Vatican in 1957, 1973, 1982 and 1994. Then Federal President Roman Herzog paid an official visit in 1995 and then President Johannes Rau in March 2004. Then Federal President Horst Köhler attended Pope John Paul II’s funeral and Pope Benedict XVI’s inaugural Mass in April 2005 and met with the Pope on 17 November 2006 at a concert and in a private audience at the Vatican. On 4 December 2009, the Augsburger Domsingknaben and the Residenz-Kammerorchester München gave a performance of Johann Sebastian Bach’s “Christmas Oratorio”, which was attended by then Federal President Köhler, in the Sistine Chapel in honour of Pope Benedict XVI. On 5 December 2009, then Federal President Köhler was granted a private audience with Pope Benedict XVI. Then Federal President Joachim Gauck paid an official visit to the Vatican in 2012. Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel attended Pope Francis I’s inaugural Mass on 19 March 2013 and was received in private audience on 18 May 2013. The Federal Chancellor became the first head of government to have a second private audience with Pope Francis on 21 February 2015. Federal Chancellor Merkel also attended the presentation of the International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen to Pope Francis at the Vatican on 6 May 2016; this was followed by her third private audience with the Pope. German Bundestag President Norbert Lammert, who invited Pope Francis to visit Germany while attending the inaugural Mass, paid an official visit to the Vatican on 14 and 15 September on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of German reunification. Pope Francis has also received a number of Minister-Presidents in connection with the concordat agreements with Germany’s federal states.
2011 Papal visit
Pope Benedict XVI visited Germany from 22 to 25 September 2011. After attending the 2005 World Youth Day in Cologne and spending a few days in his native Bavaria in 2006, Pope Benedict XVI paid his first official visit to Germany at the invitation of then Federal President Wulff. The visit was of great significance not only for the many German Catholics; it also marked a high point in relations between Germany and the Holy See. The Pope’s German visit took him to Berlin, Erfurt and Freiburg.
In Berlin, where the last previous papal visit was that by Pope John Paul II in 1996, the programme was mostly of an official nature, including a welcome with military honours by the Federal President, talks with the Federal Chancellor and a speech to the German Bundestag at the invitation of its President, as well as pastoral activities and further talks. The Pope’s talks in Erfurt with representatives of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), which took place in the city’s historic Augustinian monastery where Martin Luther was a member of the order prior to 1517, sent a strong message in terms of ecumenical relations in the “land of the Reformation”. In Freiburg, the focus was on pastoral matters. Media interest centred on Pope Benedict XVI’s speech to the Bundestag and the speech he gave at the Konzerthaus Freiburg.
Concordats with Germany and the German federal states
Germany and its federal states have concluded the following concordats with the Holy See:
Concordat between the Holy See and the German Empire of 20 July 1933 (legality and continuing validity recognised and confirmed by a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court on 26 March 1957); Concordat with Bavaria of 29 March 1924, Concordat with Prussia of 14 June 1929; Concordat with Baden of 12 October 1932.
The Holy See has also entered into concordat agreements with individual federal states, including Lower Saxony (26 February 1965), Rhineland-Palatinate (15 May 1973), North Rhine-Westphalia (26 March 1984), Saarland (12 February 1985), Saxony (3 July 1996), Thuringia (11 June 1997), Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (22 December 1997), Saxony-Anhalt (22 April 1998), Brandenburg (25 May 2004), Bremen (14 May 2004), Hamburg (October 2006) and Schleswig-Holstein (12 January 2009).
These concordats and concordat agreements mainly deal with the following issues:
- freedom of worship, free conferral of ecclesiastical offices
- joint affairs of church and state, such as religious education, theological faculties, pastoral care in institutions and the military, cemetery law, marital law and church tax law, state payments, building costs, government grants and discharging debts to the state
New diocesan borders: In 1994, in the wake of German reunification, the borders of the dioceses in the territory of the former GDR, and consequently those in northern Germany, were redrawn. An archdiocese was established in Hamburg, Berlin was upgraded to an archdiocese and Magdeburg, Erfurt and Görlitz became dioceses.
Key German-language Catholic institutions in Rome
Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum (college for training candidates for the priesthood), Rector: P. Stefan Dartmann S.J.
Santa Maria in Campo Santo Teutonico (priests college for special studies), Rector: Dr Hans-Peter Fischer
Römisches Institut der Görres-Gesellschaft, Managing Director: Monseigneur Professor Dr Stefan Heid
Santa Maria dell’Anima (priests college for special studies), Rector: Franz Xaver Brandmayr
German members of the College of Cardinals (in order of appointment)
(Ten cardinals, seven of which are ineligible to participate in the papal conclave due to their age, listed here in order of appointment)
1983 Cardinal Joachim Meisner (until 2014 Archbishop of Cologne)
1985 Cardinal Friedrich Wetter (until 2007 Archbishop of Munich and Freising)
2002 Cardinal Walter Kasper, Curial Cardinal Emeritus (until June 2010 President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity)
2002 Cardinal Karl Lehmann, Bishop of Mainz (Chairman of the German Bishops’ Conference from 1987 to 2008)
2007 Cardinal Paul-Josef Cordes, Curial Cardinal Emeritus (until mid-2010 President of the Pontifical Council “Cor Unum”)
2010 Cardinal Reinhard Marx, Archbishop of Munich and Freising and since 2014 also Chairman of the German Bishops’ Conference, member of the Council of Cardinals and Coordinator of the Vatican Council for the Economy, President of the Commission of the Bishops’ Conferences of the European Community (COMECE)
2010 Cardinal Walter Brandmüller, Curial Cardinal Emeritus (until 2009 President of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences)
2014 Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (until 2012 Bishop of Regensburg)
2015 Cardinal Karl-Josef Rauber, Titular Archbishop Emeritus of Iubaltiana (until 2009 Apostolic Nuncio to Belgium and Luxembourg)