Despite the numerous international legal instruments developed to protect this human right, freedom of religion and thought remains under threat or subject to restrictions. Promoting freedom of religion and thought around the world is thus an important part of Germany’s human rights policy. Freedom of religion and thought is a right enshrined in a large number of United Nations (UN) resolutions and international agreements, including the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the UN’s 1981 Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief.
Freedom of religion encompasses many different rights
Freedom of religion and thought includes the freedom of an individual to have or to adopt a religion or world view of their choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others, to practise their religion or world view without interference. It also includes the freedom to change one’s religion, as well as the freedom not to adhere to any religion or world view.
Many restrictions around the world
Despite the numerous international legal instruments developed to protect this human right, freedom of religion and thought is subject to restrictions in many parts of the world. In some countries, only members of a particular religion may hold high political office. In many parts of the world, people may be denied equal rights or discriminated against because of their religion or world view.
Restrictions on freedom of opinion may also be used to curtail freedom of religion and thought. For example, blasphemy is a criminal offence in many countries. Blasphemy laws make it a punishable offence to express one’s opinion on religious matters freely or to give up one’s religion, and sentences may even include the death penalty.
Germany and the EU promote freedom of religion and thought
Promoting freedom of religion and thought around the world is an important part of Germany’s human rights policy. In its bilateral political dialogue with third countries, the German Government and its EU partners seek to protect and foster freedom of religion and thought. Germany provides systematic support to projects designed to enhance universal respect for freedom of religion and thought, in particular to intercultural dialogue programmes aimed at promoting better understanding between people of different faiths.
In June 2016, the German Government published a report on the status of freedom of religion and thought worldwide (in German, PDF, 1 MB), which systematically illustrates the situation using examples of typical violations of the human right to freedom of religion and thought by state and non-state actors. It focuses on the problem of the perpetration of violence in a religious context and also covers the German Government’s foreign-policy endeavours to prevent violations of this human right.
At EU level, protecting freedom of religion and thought is an issue that features regularly in EU Council Conclusions, declarations and démarches. In June 2013, the Foreign Affairs Council of the European Union adopted EU guidelines on the promotion and protection of freedom of religion or belief, which provide EU delegations and member states’ missions abroad with practical guidance for their work in this area.
Activities at UN level
Since 2004, the EU has regularly raised the topic of freedom of religion and thought in the UN, where for a long time, however, there were highly contradictory positions on the universality of the human right to freedom of religion and thought. For example, in its 1990 Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) made the validity and enjoyment of human rights subject to the tenets of sharia and among other things denied individuals the right to convert to another religion. There have also been repeated attempts to make freedom of religion a collective rather than an individual right. If this right is vested in the religious community rather than the individual, the former has the right to determine the scope of and any limits to such freedom for the latter. In March 2011, there was a shift in the entrenched negotiating positions after the OIC agreed to drop its demand that “defamation of religions” be legally defined as a violation of human rights, instead tabling a resolution text calling for efforts to combat negative stereotyping and religious hatred.
The UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief investigates violations of this important human right and draws up recommendations on how they can be prevented and how freedom of religion and thought can be guaranteed all over the world. German human rights expert Professor Heiner Bielefeldt of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg held this position from 2010 to 2016.