Korea (Democratic People's Republic of)
Last updated in March 2013
Political relations between Germany and North Korea date back to when the Democratic People’s Republic was founded on 9 September 1948.
The former German Democratic Republic (GDR) maintained diplomatic relations with North Korea from 1949 onwards and was one of the country’s most important partners in the Eastern bloc. In 1991, after German reunification, a mission to represent the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany was initially opened on the premises of the former GDR Embassy in Pyongyang, with Sweden acting as protecting power. At the same time, the former North Korean Embassy in East Berlin was turned into an Office for the Protection of the Interests of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, with the People’s Republic of China acting as protecting power.
Germany and North Korea established diplomatic relations on 1 March 2001. According to the agreement reached in this connection, diplomatic relations are aimed at securing the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, advancing inner-Korean dialogue and improving the human rights situation in North Korea.
Under the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy as well as in the framework of the United Nations and in bilateral relations, Germany is trying to get North Korea to resume the six-party talks on ending its nuclear weapons programme. At the same time, it is making efforts to induce North Korea to enter into dialogue with the international community on the human rights situation there.
The UN and EU sanctions also have an impact on bilateral relations. At present, political relations between Germany and North Korea are largely coloured by misgivings about North Korea’s most recent nuclear weapons test in February 2013 (its third overall), the two unsuccessful missile launches in April and the successful launch in December 2012 as well as the military incidents in 2010.
Overall, no progress has been made on the issue of respect for human rights in North Korea.
Economic relations and development cooperation
Germany is not engaged in bilateral development cooperation with North Korea but humanitarian aid has played an important role in bilateral relations in recent years. This was, however, terminated by the North Korean government in 2006. Since then, assistance has continued in the form of development-oriented emergency and transitional aidunder the umbrella of the EU. German Agro Action is one of the main humanitarian organizations active in North Korea. The Red Cross has also conducted a number of German-funded projects.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, there have been no visits to North Korea by German government delegations at ministerial level or trips to Germany by North Korean government ministers (except for the visit by then Physical Culture and Sports Minister Pak Myong Chol who travelled to Germany in June 2011 to attend the opening match of the FIFA Women’s World Cup). However, there have been several official visits to North Korea by members of the German Bundestag.
There are no agreements between the two countries on economic, financial or scientific and technological cooperation.
There is some interest in German culture in North Korea, mainly in classical music and literature, but cultural and education work is highly restricted by the requirement that official permission be obtained for any activities and by prior censorship.
There is a German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) lecturer working at the Kim Il Sung University in Pyongyang. In recent years, his efforts have enabled a number of North Korean academics to spend several months in Germany as guest researchers. In view of the UN sanctions regime, however, it is not currently possible to accept scientists or engineers.
Since the 1990s, Germans have no longer been allowed to study or pursue research in North Korea.
The doctors’ programme enabling German-speaking North Korean doctors to receive further training in German hospitals is being continued in 2012 and 2013.
In the area of civic education, the major players are the German political foundations with offices in Seoul (the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, the Friedrich Naumann Foundation, the Hanns Seidel Foundation and the Konrad Adenauer Foundation). Their representatives visit Pyongyang at regular intervals and offer a variety of dialogue programmes in Germany and North Korea. In 2010 and 2011, it proved possible – for the first time since diplomatic relations were established with North Korea – to organize German Days featuring lectures, film screenings and exhibitions for a selected public of around 100 visitors per event. Political tensions following the unsuccessful missile launch on 13 April 2012 led to the event being cancelled in 2012.